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Research Publications

Neurofeedback has a strong evidence base, with decades of research detailing its impact on clinical outcomes. 

There are over 2,400 published papers on neurofeedback, including animal studies, reversal designs, and random treatment assignment.


There are studies regarding neurofeedback for a wide variety of concerns.

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Research Publication on the NAP's Results Tracking System

Abstract: There is a crisis in mental health. The demand for services is huge; the efficacy of current services is lacking, and the traditional path to developing effective treatments is not working. This paper describes an approach based on implementing infra-low frequency (ILF) neurofeedback in agencies that work with the underserved and collecting data on clients' concerns, behavior, quality of life, and cognitive performance. We also track session-by-session changes in client concerns and their relation to ILF neurofeedback protocols. Results are reviewed for over 300 clients seen in such agencies. Limitations and future directions are discussed for this model.

Citation: Fleischman, MJ (2022). Documenting the Impact of Infra Low-Frequency Neurofeedback on Underserved Populations With Complex Clinical Presentations. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 16:921491. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.921491 (Download)

Repository of Articles on Endogenous Neuromodulation in the Infra-Low Frequency Regime

This link contains recently published articles on InfraLow Frequency (ILF) Neurofeedback in the Frontiers in Human Neuroscience journal.

You'll find "Documenting the Impact of Infra Low Frequency Neurofeedback on Underserved Populations With Complex Clinical Presentations" by Matthew J. Fleischman, PhD, the Chair of the NAP's Board of Directors, as well as "Infra-low frequency neurofeedback in persistent postural-perceptual dizziness—Case report" by Roxana Sasu, the NAP's Executive Director.

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InfraLow Frequency (ILF) Neurofeedback Overview, Mechanisms and Neurophysiology

Altan, S., Berberoglu, B., Canan, S. & Dane, S. (2016). Effects of neurofeedback therapy in healthy young subjects. Clin invest Med 39, 27–30.


Arina, G., Osina, E., Dobrushina, O. & Aziatskaya, G. (2017). Sham-neurofeedback as an intervention: Placebo or nocebo? European Psychiatry, 41, 253-254.

Asadpour, V. (2021) Training the Conductor of the Brainwave Symphony: In Search of a Common Mechanism of Action for All Methods of Neurofeedback. In Brain-Computer Interface (1-18), Markovics, J.A.


Dobrushina, O. et al. (2015). The effect of Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback on default mode network of the brain. Conference paper at Applied Neuroscience and Social Well being, Moscow. (in Russian).

Dobrushina, O. R. et al. (2018) Exploring the brain contour of implicit infra-low frequency EEG neurofeedback: a resting state fMRI study. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 131, S76 (2018).


Dobrushina, O. et al. (2020). Modulation of Intrinsic Brain Connectivity by Implicit Electroencephalographic Neurofeedback. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14: 192. 


Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Kara, O., Wandernoth, B., Gregory, M., Ilyukhina, V. A., & Kropotov, J. D. (2018). Effect of Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback on Infra-Slow EEG Fluctuations. In Biofeedback. IntechOpen

Grin-Yatsenko, V., Kara, O., Evdokimov, S., Gregory, M., Othmer, S. & Kropotov, J. (2020). Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback Modulates Infra-Slow Oscillations of Brain Potentials: A Controlled Study. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Research, 4, 1-11.


Legarda S., McMahon D., Othmer S. & Othmer SF. (2011). Clinical Neurofeedback: Case Studies, Proposed Mechanism and Implication for Paediatric Neurology Practice. Journal of Child Neurology, 26(8), 1045-1051.

Othmer S., Othmer S.F., Kaiser D. & Putman J. (2013). Endogenous Neuromodulation at Infra-Low Frequencies. Seminars in Paediatric Neurology, 20(4), 246-257.


Othmer S., Othmer SF. & Legarda S. (2011). Clinical Neurofeedback: Training Brain Behavior. Pediatric Neurology and Psychiatry, 2, 67-73.


Segler, K. (2020). The Science Behind Our Model: The Development of the Othmer Method. BEE Medic & Neurofeedback Scotland.


Seuß, S. & Riederle, J. (2021). Experiences with Neurofeedback in Therapeutic Practice. Praxis Ergotherapie, 34.


Sitaram, R., Ros, T., Stoeckel, L., Haller, S., Scharnowski, F., Lewis-Peacock, J., Weiskopf, N., Blefari, M., Rona, M., Oblka, E., Birbaumer, N. &
Sulzer, J. (2017). Closed-loop brain training: the science of neurofeedback. Nature Review Neuroscience, 18(2), 86 -100.

ILF Neurofeedback in Latest Clinical Application


Corominas-Roso, M. et al. (2020). Benefits of EEG-Neurofeedback on the Modulation of Impulsivity in a Sample of Cocaine and Heroin Long-Term Abstinent Inmates: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 64(12), 1275-1298.


Leong, S. L., Vanneste, S., Lim, J., Smith, M., Manning, P., & De Ridder, D. (2018). A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel
trial of closed-loop infraslow brain training in food addiction. Scientific reports, 8(1), 1-9.



Asadpour, V. (2021) Therapeutic Effect of Infra-Low-Frequency Neurofeedback Training on Children and Adolescents with ADHD. In Brain-Computer Interface (1-18), Schneider, H., Riderle, J. & Seuss, S.


Coben, R., Linden, M. & Myers, T.E. (2010). Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Literature. Applied
Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 35(1), 83-105.

Flatz, T. & Gleußner, M. (2014). Neurofeedbacktherapie bei ADHS und Autismus. Pädiatrie & Pädologie 49, 22–27.


Othmer S. & Othmer S.F. (2011). Neurofeedback for the Autism Spectrum. In K. Siri and T. Lyons (Eds.), Cutting-Edge Therapies for Autism (262-267). Skyhorse Publishing.

Schneider, H., Alfred, A., Wandernoth, B. and Blunck, A. (2019): Therapeutic effect of Infra-Low-Frequency (ILF-) Neurofeedback training on Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit (Hyperkinetic) Disorder. Clinical Neurophysiology, 130, 8, e125-e126. Conference Abstract at the 63rd Annual Meeting of the German Society for Clinical Neurophysiology and Functional Imaging (DGKN)



Grin-Yatsenko, V. A. et al. (2018) Infra-low frequency neurofeedback in depression: Three case studies. NeuroRegulation 5, 30–42.



Dobrushina, O., Arina, G., Osina, E. & Aziatskaya, G. (2017). Clinical and psychological confirmation of stabilizing effect of neurofeedback in migraine. European Psychiatry, 41.



Chirita-Emandi, A., & Puiu, M. (2014). Outcomes of neurofeedback training in childhood obesity management: A pilot study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(11), 831–837.



Dobrushina, O. R., Varako, N. A., Kovyazina, M. S. & Zinchenko, Y. P. (2016). Combination of Neurofeedback and cognitive training in attention deficit due to multiple sclerosis. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 108, 118.


Ingvaldsen, S. H. (2019). QEEG and Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback Training in Fibromyalgia: A Pilot Study (Master's thesis, NTNU).



Lamprecht, C. E. (2019). The effect of neurofeedback in post-concussion syndrome. Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch University.


Gerge, A. (2020). A multifaceted case-vignette integrating neurofeedback and EMDR in the treatment of complex PTSD. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 4(3), 100157.


Othmer, S. & Othmer, S. F. (2009). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder—The Neurofeedback Remedy. Biofeedback 37, 24–31.


Othmer, S., Othmer, S. F. & Legarda, S. B. (2011). Clinical Neurofeedback: Training Brain Behavior. Treat. Strateg. Pediatr. Neurol. Psychiatry 2, 67–73.

Nilsson, R. M. & Nilsson, V. (2014). Neurofeedback Treatment for Traumatized Refugees-A Pilot Study. Lund University, Department of Psychology.


Rogel, A., Loomis, A. M., Hamlin, E., Hodgdon, H., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (2020, July 13). The Impact of Neurofeedback Training on Children With Developmental Trauma: A Randomized Controlled Study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. Advance online publication. 


van der Kolk, B., Hodgdon, H., Gapen, M., Musicaro, R., Suvak, M.K., Hamlin, E., & Spinazolla, J. (2016). A Randomized Controlled Study of  Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0166752.


Legarda, S. B., McMahon, D., Othmer, S. S. & Othmer, S. S. (2011). Clinical neurofeedback: Case studies, proposed mechanism, and implications for pediatric neurology practice. J. Child Neurol. 26, 1045–1051.


Strehl U., Birkle M., Wörz S. & Kotchoubey B. (2014). Sustained reduction of seizures in patients with intractable epilepsy after self-regulation
training of slow cortical potentials - 10 years after. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 604.



Güntensperger, D., Thüring, C., Meyer, M., Neff, P. & Kleinjung, T. (2017). Neurofeedback for Tinnitus Treatment - Review and Current Concepts. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 9,386. (Attn: they have primarily used frequency band NFB training in their studies and are (just) referring to ILF-NFB)

Güntensperger, D. (2018). Treatment of chronic tinnitus with neurofeedback. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Zurich). (Attn: they have primarily used frequency band NFB training in their studies and are (just) referring to ILF-NFB)

Leong, S. L., Vanneste, S., Lim, J., Smith, M., Manning, P., & De Ridder, D. (2018). A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel trial of closed-loop infraslow brain training in food addiction. Scientific reports, 8(1), 1-9.



Prinz, W. (2015). Neurofeedbacktherapie als Spezialtherapieangebot. psychopraxis. neuropraxis 18, 180-183. (in German)


Carlson, J. & Ross, G.W. (2021). Neurofeedback Impact on Chronic Headache, Sleep, and Attention Disorders Experienced by Veterans with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study. Biofeedback, 49(1), 2-9.



Orakpo, N., Vieux, U. & Castro-Nunez, C. (2021). Case Report: Virtual Reality Neurofeedback Therapy as a Novel Modality for Sustained Analgesia in Centralized Pain Syndromes. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 418. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.660105


Books and Book Chapters on ILF Neurofeedback

Kirk H. (2015) Restoring the Brain: Neurofeedback as an Integrative Approach to Health. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group. esp. Chapter 11, Neurofeedback in application to the ADHD spectrum, R. Sasu & S. Othmer



Othmer, S. & Othmer, S. F. (2011). Performance Enhancement Applications of Neurofeedback. In Case Studies in Applied Psychophysiology: Neurofeedback and Biofeedback Treatments for Advances in Human Performance 17–30. Wiley-Blackwell.

Othmer S. (2019). Protocol Guide for Neurofeedback Clinicians, 7th Edition. EEG Info

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